FILE SYSTEM(V)               9/7/73                FILE SYSTEM(V)


     fs - format of file system volume


     Caution:  this  information  applies  only  to  the   latest

     versions of the UNIX system.

     Every file system storage volume (e.g. RF disk, RK disk,  RP

     disk,  DECtape  reel)  has a common format for certain vital

     information.  Every such volume is divided  into  a  certain

     number of 256 word (512 byte) blocks.  Block 0 is unused and

     is available to contain a bootstrap program, pack label,  or

     other information.

     Block 1 is the super block.  Starting from its  first  word,

     the format of a super-block is

     struct {

             int     isize;

             int     fsize;

             int     nfree;

             int     free[100];

             int     ninode;

             int     inode[100];

             char    flock;

             char    ilock;

             char    fmod;

             int     time[2];


     Isize is the number of blocks devoted to the  i-list,  which

     starts just after the super-block, in block 2.  Fsize is the

     first block not potentially available for  allocation  to  a

     file.   This  number is unused by the system, but is used by

     programs like check (I) to test for bad block numbers.   The

     free  list  for  each  volume is maintained as follows.  The

     free array contains, in free[1], ... , free[nfree-1], up  to

     99  numbers  of free blocks.  Free[0] is the block number of

     the head of a chain of blocks constituting  the  free  list.

     The first word in each free-chain block is the number (up to

     100) of free-block numbers listed in the next 100  words  of

     this  chain  member.   The  first of these 100 blocks is the

     link to the next member of the chain.  To allocate a  block:

     decrement  nfree,  and the new block is free[nfree].  If the

     new block number is 0, there are no blocks left, so give  an

     error.   If  nfree  became 0, read in the block named by the

     new block number, replace nfree by its first word, and  copy

     the block numbers in the next 100 words into the free array.

     To free a block, check if nfree is 100; if  so,  copy  nfree

     and  the  free array into it, write it out, and set nfree to

     0.  In any event set free[nfree] to the freed block's number

     and increment nfree.

     Ninode is the number of free i-numbers in the  inode  array.

     To  allocate  an  i-node:  if  ninode  is  greater  than  0,

     decrement it and return inode[ninode].  If it  was  0,  read

     the  i-list  and place the numbers of all free inodes (up to

     100) into the inode array, then try again.  To  free  an  i-

     node,  provided  ninode  is  less than 100, place its number

     into inode[ninode]  and  increment  ninode.   If  ninode  is

     already 100, don't bother to enter the freed i-node into any

     table.  This list  of  i-nodes  is  only  to  speed  up  the

     allocation  process; the information as to whether the inode

     is really free or not is maintained in the inode itself.

     Flock and ilock are flags maintained in the core copy of the

     file system while it is mounted and their values on disk are

     immaterial.   The  value  of  fmod  on  disk   is   likewise

     immaterial;  it  is  used  as  a  flag  to indicate that the

     super-block has changed and should be  copied  to  the  disk

     during the next periodic update of file system information.

     Time is the last time the super-block of the file system was

     changed,  and  is  a  double-precision representation of the

     number of seconds that have elapsed since 0000 Jan.  1  1970

     (GMT).  During a reboot, the time of the super-block for the

     root file system is used to set the  system's  idea  of  the


     I-numbers begin at 1, and the storage for i-nodes begins  in

     block 2.  Also, i-nodes are 32 bytes long, so 16 of them fit

     into a block.  Therefore,  i-node  i  is  located  in  block
     (i + 31) / 16,  and  begins 32 ((i + 31) (mod 16) bytes from

     its start.  I-node 1 is reserved for the root  directory  of

     the  file  system,  but  no  other  i-number  has a built-in

     meaning.  Each i-node represents one file.  The format of an

     i-node is as follows.

     struct {

             int     flags;  /* +0: see below */

             char    nlinks; /* +2: number of links to file */

             char    uid;    /* +3: user ID of owner */

             char    gid;    /* +4: group ID of owner */

             char    size0;  /* +5: high byte of 24-bit size */

             int     size1;  /* +6: low word of 24-bit size */

             int     addr[8];        /* +8: block numbers or device number */

             int     actime[2];      /* +24: time of last access */

             int     modtime[2];     /* +28: time of last modification */


     The flags are as follows:

      100000    i-node is allocated

      060000    2-bit file type:

           000000    plain file

           040000    directory

           020000    character-type special file

           060000    block-type special file.

      010000    large file

      004000    set user-ID on execution

      002000    set group-ID on execution

      000400    read (owner)

      000200    write (owner)

      000100    execute (owner)

      000070    read, write, execute (group)

      000007    read, write, execute (others)

     Special files are recognized by their flags and  not  by  i-

     number.   A  block-type  special file is basically one which

     can potentially be mounted as a file  system;  a  character-

     type  special  file  cannot,  though  it  is not necessarily

     character-oriented.  For special files the high byte of  the

     first  address  word  specifies  the type of device; the low

     byte specifies one of several devices  of  that  type.   The

     device  type  numbers  of  block and character special files


     The address words of ordinary files and directories  contain

     the  numbers  of  the blocks in the file (if it is small) or

     the numbers of indirect blocks (if the file is large).

     Byte number n of a  file  is  accessed  as  follows.   N  is

     divided  by 512 to find its logical block number (say b ) in

     the file.  If the file is small (flag 010000 is 0),  then  b

     must  be  less  than  8,  and  the  physical block number is


     If the file is large, b is divided by 256 to  yield  i,  and

     addr[i]  is the physical block number of the indirect block.

     The remainder from the  division  yields  the  word  in  the

     indirect  block  which  contains the number of the block for

     the sought-for byte.

     For block b in a file to exist, it is not necessary that all

     blocks less than b exist.  A zero block number either in the

     address  words  of  the  i-node  or  in  an  indirect  block

     indicates  that  the  corresponding  block  has  never  been

     allocated.  Such a missing block reads as  if  it  contained

     all zero words.


     check (VIII)