LS(I) 3/20/74 LS(I)
ls - list contents of directory
ls [ -ltasdruifg ] name ...
For each directory argument, ls lists the contents of the
directory; for each file argument, ls repeats its name and
any other information requested. The output is sorted
alphabetically by default. When no argument is given, the
current directory is listed. When several arguments are
given, the arguments are first sorted appropriately, but
file arguments appear before directories and their contents.
There are several options:
-l list in long format, giving mode, number of links,
owner, size in bytes, and time of last modification for
each file. (See below.) If the file is a special file
the size field will instead contain the major and minor
-t sort by time modified (latest first) instead of by
name, as is normal
-a list all entries; usually those beginning with `.' are
-s give size in blocks for each entry
-d if argument is a directory, list only its name, not its
contents (mostly used with -l to get status on
-r reverse the order of sort to get reverse alphabetic or
oldest first as appropriate
-u use time of last access instead of last modification
for sorting ( -t) or printing ( -l)
-i print i-number in first column of the report for each
-f force each argument to be interpreted as a directory
and list the name found in each slot. This option turns
off -l, -t, -s, and -r, and turns on -a; the order is
the order in which entries appear in the directory.
-g Give group ID instead of owner ID in long listing.
The mode printed under the -l option contains 11 characters
which are interpreted as follows: the first character is
d if the entry is a directory;
b if the entry is a block-type special file;
c if the entry is a character-type special file;
- if the entry is a plain file.
The next 9 characters are interpreted as three sets of three
bits each. The first set refers to owner permissions; the
next to permissions to others in the same user-group; and
the last to all others. Within each set the three
characters indicate permission respectively to read, to
write, or to execute the file as a program. For a
directory, `execute' permission is interpreted to mean
permission to search the directory for a specified file.
The permissions are indicated as follows:
r if the file is readable
w if the file is writable
x if the file is executable
- if the indicated permission is not granted
The group-execute permission character is given as s if the
file has set-group-ID mode; likewise the user-execute
permission character is given as s if the file has set-
The last character of the mode is normally blank but is
printed as ``t'' if the 1000 bit of the mode is on. See
chmod (I) for the current meaning of this mode.
/etc/passwd to get user ID's for ls -l.