ROFF(I)                      11/4/74                      ROFF(I)


     roff  -  format text


     roff [ +n ] [ -n ] [ -s ] [ -h ] file ...


     Roff formats text according to control lines embedded in the

     text  in  the  given files.  Encountering a nonexistent file

     terminates printing.   Incoming  interconsole  messages  are

     turned  off  during  printing.   The optional flag arguments


     +n    Start printing at the first page with number n.

     -n    Stop printing at the first page numbered  higher  than


     -s    Stop before each page (including the first)  to  allow

          paper  manipulation;  resume on receipt of an interrupt


     -h    Insert tabs in the output  stream  to  replace  spaces

          whenever appropriate.

     Input consists  of  intermixed  text  lines,  which  contain

     information  to  be  formatted,  and  request  lines,  which

     contain instructions about how to format it.  Request  lines

     begin  with  a  distinguished  control character, normally a


     Output lines may be filled as nearly as possible with  words

     without  regard  to  input  lineation.   Line  breaks may be

     caused at specified places by certain commands,  or  by  the

     appearance of an empty input line or an input line beginning

     with a space.

     The capabilities of  roff  are  specified  in  the  attached

     Request Summary.  Numerical values are denoted there by n or

     +n, titles by  t,  and  single  characters  by  c.   Numbers

     denoted  +n may be signed + or -, in which case they signify

     relative changes to a quantity, otherwise  they  signify  an

     absolute  resetting.   Missing n fields are ordinarily taken

     to be 1, missing t fields to be empty, and c fields to  shut

     off the appropriate special interpretation.

     Running titles usually appear at top  and  bottom  of  every

     page.  They are set by requests like

               .he 'part1'part2'part3'

     Part1 is left justified, part2 is  centered,  and  part3  is

     right  justified  on  the  page.   Any  % sign in a title is

     replaced by the current page number.  Any nonblank may serve

     as a quote.

     ASCII  tab  characters  are  replaced  in  the  input  by  a

     replacement  character,  normally  a space, according to the

     column settings given by a .ta command.  (See .tr for how to

     convert this character on output.)

     Automatic hyphenation of filled output is done under control

     of  .hy.   When  a  word  contains  a designated hyphenation

     character, that character disappears  from  the  output  and

     hyphens can be introduced into the word at the marked places



     /usr/lib/suftab suffix hyphenation tables

     /tmp/rtm?       temporary


     nroff (I), troff (I)


     Roff is the simplest of the runoff programs, but is  utterly


                         REQUEST SUMMARY

Request  Break   Initial Meaning

.ad      yes     yes     Begin adjusting right margins.

.ar      no      arabic  Arabic page numbers.

.br      yes     -       Causes a line break - the filling of the

                        current line is stopped.

.bl n    yes     -       Insert of n blank lines, on new page if


.bp +n   yes     n=1     Begin new page and number it n; no n

                        means `+1'.

.cc c    no      c=.     Control character becomes `c'.

.ce n    yes     -       Center the next n input lines, without


.de xx   no      -       Define parameterless macro to be invoked

                        by request `.xx' (definition ends on line

                        beginning `..').

.ds      yes     no      Double space; same as `.ls 2'.

.ef t    no      t=''''  Even foot title becomes t.

.eh t    no      t=''''  Even head title becomes t.

.fi      yes     yes     Begin filling output lines.

.fo      no      t=''''  All foot titles are t.

.hc c    no      none    Hyphenation character becomes `c'.

.he t    no      t=''''  All head titles are t.

.hx      no      -       Title lines are suppressed.

.hy n    no      n=1     Hyphenation is done, if n=1; and is not

                        done, if n=0.

.ig      no      -       Ignore input lines through a line

                        beginning with `..'.

.in +n   yes     -       Indent n spaces from left margin.

.ix +n   no      -       Same as `.in' but without break.

.li n    no      -       Literal, treat next n lines as text.

.ll +n   no      n=65    Line length including indent is n


.ls +n   yes     n=1     Line spacing set to n lines per output


.m1 n    no      n=2     Put n blank lines between the top of

                        page and head title.

.m2 n    no      n=2     n blank lines put between head title and

                        beginning of text on page.

.m3 n    no      n=1     n blank lines put between end of text

                        and foot title.

.m4 n    no      n=3     n blank lines put between the foot title

                        and the bottom of page.

.na      yes     no      Stop adjusting the right margin.

.ne n    no      -       Begin new page, if n output lines cannot

                        fit on present page.

.nn +n   no      -       The next n output lines are not


.n1      no      no      Add 5 to page offset; number lines in

                        margin from 1 on each page.

.n2 n    no      no      Add 5 to page offset; number lines from

                        n; stop if n=0.

.ni +n   no      n=0     Line numbers are indented n.

.nf      yes     no      Stop filling output lines.

.nx filename     -       Change to input file `filename'.

.of t    no      t=''''  Odd foot title becomes t.

.oh t    no      t=''''  Odd head title becomes t.

.pa +n   yes     n=1     Same as `.bp'.

.pl +n   no      n=66    Total paper length taken to be n lines.

.po +n   no      n=0     Page offset.  All lines are preceded by

                        n spaces.

.ro      no      arabic  Roman page numbers.

.sk n    no      -       Produce n blank pages starting next


.sp n    yes     -       Insert block of n blank lines, except at

                        top of page.

.ss      yes     yes     Single space output lines, equivalent to

                        `.ls 1'.

.ta n n..                -       Pseudotab settings.  Initial tab

                        settings are columns 9 17 25 ...

.tc c    no      space   Tab replacement character becomes `c'.

.ti +n   yes     -       Temporarily indent next output line n


.tr cdef..       no      -       Translate c into d, e into f,


.ul n    no      -       Underline the letters and numbers in the

                        next n input lines.