ED(I)                        1/15/73                        ED(I)


     ed - editor


     ed [ - ] [ name ]


     Ed is the standard text editor.

     If a name argument is given, ed simulates an e command  (see

     below)  on  the named file; that is to say, the file is read

     into ed's buffer so that it can be edited.  The  optional  -

     simulates  an  os  command  (see below) which suppresses the

     printing of characters counts by e, r, and w commands.

     Ed operates on a copy of any file  it  is  editing;  changes

     made  in  the  copy  have  no  effect  on the file until a w

     (write) command is given.  The copy of the text being edited

     resides  in  a  temporary  file called the buffer.  There is

     only one buffer.

     Commands to ed have a simple and regular structure: zero  or

     more  addresses  followed  by  a  single  character command,

     possibly followed  by  parameters  to  the  command.   These

     addresses  specify  one  or more lines in the buffer.  Every

     command which requires addresses has default  addresses,  so

     that the addresses can often be omitted.

     In general, only one command may appear on a line.   Certain

     commands  allow  the  input of text.  This text is placed in

     the appropriate place in the buffer.  While ed is  accepting

     text,  it  is  said  to  be in input mode.  In this mode, no

     commands are recognized;  all  input  is  merely  collected.

     Input  mode  is  left  by  typing  a period `.' alone at the

     beginning of a line.

     Ed supports a limited form of regular  expression  notation.

     A  regular expression is an expression which specifies a set

     of strings of characters.  A member of this set  of  strings

     is  said  to  be  matched  by  the  regular expression.  The

     regular  expressions  allowed  by  ed  are  constructed   as


        1.  An ordinary character (not  one  of  those  discussed

           below)  is  a  regular  expression  and  matches  that


        2.  A circumflex  `^'  at  the  beginning  of  a  regular

           expression matches the null character at the beginning

           of a line.

        3.  A currency  symbol  `$'  at  the  end  of  a  regular

           expression  matches the null character at the end of a


        4.  A period `.' matches any  character  but  a  new-line


        5.  A regular expression  followed  by  an  asterisk  `*'

           matches  any number of adjacent occurrences (including

           zero) of the regular expression it follows.

        6.  A string of characters enclosed in square brackets `[

           ]'  matches any character in the string but no others.

           If, however, the first character of the  string  is  a

           circumflex  `^'  the  regular  expression  matches any

           character but  new-line  and  the  characters  in  the


        7.  The concatenation of regular expressions is a regular

           expression  which  matches  the  concatenation  of the

           strings matched  by  the  components  of  the  regular


        8.  The  null  regular  expression  standing   alone   is

           equivalent to the last regular expression encountered.

     Regular expressions are used in addresses to  specify  lines

     and  in  one command (see s below) to specify a portion of a

     line which is to be replaced.

     If it is desired  to  use  one  of  the  regular  expression

     metacharacters  as an ordinary character, that character may

     be preceded by `\'.  This  also  applies  to  the  character

     bounding  the  regular  expression  (often  `/')  and to `\'


     Addresses  are  constructed  as  follows.    To   understand

     addressing  in  ed  it is necessary to know that at any time

     there is a current line.  Generally  speaking,  the  current

     line  is  the  last line affected by a command; however, the

     exact  effect  on  the  current  line  by  each  command  is

     discussed under the description of the command.

        1.  The character `.' addresses the current line.

        2.  The character  `^'  addresses  the  line  immediately

           before the current line.

        3.  The character `$' addresses  the  last  line  of  the


        4.  A decimal number n addresses the  n-th  line  of  the


        5.  `'x' addresses the line associated (marked) with  the

           mark  name  character  x  which  must  be  a printable

           character.   Lines  are  marked  with  the  k  command

           described below.

        6.  A  regular  expression  enclosed   in   slashes   `/'

           addresses the first line found by searching toward the

           end of the buffer  and  stopping  at  the  first  line

           containing  a  string matching the regular expression.

           If necessary the search wraps around to the  beginning

           of the buffer.

        7.  A  regular  expression  enclosed   in   queries   `?'

           addresses the first line found by searching toward the

           beginning of the buffer and stopping at the first line

           found   containing   a  string  matching  the  regular

           expression.  If necessary the search wraps  around  to

           the end of the buffer.

        8.  An address followed by a plus sign  `+'  or  a  minus

           sign  `-'  followed by a decimal number specifies that

           address plus (resp. minus)  the  indicated  number  of

           lines.  The plus sign may be omitted.

     Commands may require zero, one, or two addresses.   Commands

     which require no addresses regard the presence of an address

     as an error.  Commands which accept  one  or  two  addresses

     assume  default  addresses  when insufficient are given.  If

     more addresses are given than such a command  requires,  the

     last one or two (depending on what is accepted) are used.

     Addresses are separated from each other typically by a comma

     `,'.   They  may  also  be separated by a semicolon `;'.  In

     this case the current  line  `.'  is  set  to  the  previous

     address  before  the  next  address  is  interpreted.   This

     feature can be used  to  determine  the  starting  line  for

     forward  and  backward  searches  (`/',  `?').   The  second

     address of any two-address sequence  must  correspond  to  a

     line following the line corresponding to the first address.

     In the following list of ed commands, the default  addresses

     are  shown  in parentheses.  The parentheses are not part of

     the address, but are used to show that the  given  addresses

     are the default.

     As mentioned, it is generally  illegal  for  more  than  one

     command  to  appear  on a line.  However, any command may be

     suffixed by `p' (for `print').  In that  case,  the  current

     line is printed after the command is complete.

          ( . )a



                The append  command  reads  the  given  text  and

               appends  it after the addressed line.  `.' is left

               on  the  last  line  input,  if  there  were  any,

               otherwise  at  the addressed line.  Address `0' is

               legal for this command;  text  is  placed  at  the

               beginning of the buffer.

          ( . , . )c



                The change command deletes the  addressed  lines,

               then  accepts  input  text  which  replaces  these

               lines.  `.' is left at the  last  line  input;  if

               there  were none, it is left at the first line not


          ( . , . ) d

               The delete command  deletes  the  addressed  lines

               from  the  buffer.   The line originally after the

               last line deleted becomes the current line; if the

               lines  deleted were originally at the end, the new

               last line becomes the current line.

          e filename

               The edit command causes the entire contents of the

               buffer  to  be deleted, and then the named file to

               be read in.  `.' is set to the last  line  of  the

               buffer.   The  number of characters read is typed.

               `filename' is remembered for  possible  use  as  a

               default file name in a subsequent r or w command.

          f filename

               The  filename   command   prints   the   currently

               remembered file name.  If `filename' is given, the

               currently  remembered  file  name  is  changed  to


          (1,$)g/regular expression/command list

               In the global command, the first step is  to  mark

               every   line   which  matches  the  given  regular

               expression.  Then for every such line,  the  given

               command list is executed with `.' initially set to

               that line.  A  single  command  or  the  first  of

               multiple  commands  appears  on the same line with

               the global command.  All  lines  of  a  multi-line

               list  except the last line must be ended with `\'.

               A, i, and c  commands  and  associated  input  are

               permitted;  the  `.' terminating input mode may be

               omitted if it would be on the  last  line  of  the

               command  list.   The  (global) commands, g, and v,

               are not permitted in the command list.

          ( . )i



               This command inserts the  given  text  before  the

               addressed  line.   `.'  is  left  at the last line

               input; if there were none, at the addressed  line.

               This  command  differs  from the a command only in

               the placement of the text.

          ( . )kx

               The mark command associates or marks the addressed

               line  with  the single character mark name x.  The

               ten most recent mark names  are  remembered.   The

               current  mark  names  may  be  printed  with the n


          ( . , . )l

               The list command will print the addressed lines in

               a  way that is unambiguous: Non-graphic characters

               are printed  in  octal,  prefixed  characters  are

               overstruck  with  a circumflex, and long lines are


          ( . , . )ma

               The move command  will  reposition  the  addressed

               lines  after the line addressed by a.  The last of

               the moved lines becomes the current line.


               The n command will print the current mark names.



               After os character counts printed by e, r,  and  w

               are suppressed.  Ov turns them back on.

          ( . , . )p

               The print command prints the addressed lines.  `.'

               is  left  at the last line printed.  The p command

               may be placed on the same line after any command.


               The quit command causes ed to exit.  No  automatic

               write of a file is done.

          ($)r filename

               The read command reads in the given file after the

               addressed  line.   If  no  file name is given, the

               remembered file name, if any, is used (see e and f

               commands).    The  remembered  file  name  is  not

               changed unless `filename' is the very  first  file

               name  mentioned.   Address  `0' is legal for r and

               causes the file to be read at the beginning of the

               buffer.   If the read is successful, the number of

               characters read is typed.  `.' is left at the last

               line read in from the file.

          ( . , . )s/regular expression/replacement/    or,

          ( . , . )s/regular expression/replacement/g

               The substitute  command  searches  each  addressed

               line  for  an  occurrence of the specified regular

               expression.  On each line  in  which  a  match  is

               found,  all  matched  strings  are replaced by the

               replacement specified, if the  global  replacement

               indicator  `g'  appears after the command.  If the

               global indicator does not appear, only  the  first

               occurrence  of the matched string is replaced.  It

               is an error for the substitution to  fail  on  all

               addressed  lines.   Any character other than space

               or new-line may be used instead of `/' to  delimit

               the  regular  expression and the replacement.  `.'

               is left at the last line substituted.

               An ampersand `&' appearing in the  replacement  is

               replaced   by  the  regular  expression  that  was

               matched.  The  special  meaning  of  `&'  in  this

               context may be suppressed by preceding it by `\'.

          (1,$)v/regular expression/command list

               This command is the same  as  the  global  command

               except  that the command list is executed with `.'

               initially set to every line except those  matching

               the regular expression.

          (1,$)w filename

               The write command writes the addressed lines  onto

               the given file.  If the file does not exist, it is

               created  mode  666  (readable  and  writeable   by

               everyone).    The  remembered  file  name  is  not

               changed unless `filename' is the very  first  file

               name  mentioned.   If  no  file name is given, the

               remembered file name, if any, is used (see e and f

               commands).   `.'  is unchanged.  If the command is

               successful, the number of  characters  written  is



               The line number of the addressed  line  is  typed.

               `.' is unchanged by this command.

          !UNIX command

               The remainder of the line after the `!' is sent to

               UNIX  to  be  interpreted  as  a  command.  `.' is

               unchanged.   The  entire  shell  syntax   is   not

               recognized.  See msh(VII) for the restrictions.

          ( .+1 )<newline>

               An address alone on a line  causes  the  addressed

               line  to  be  printed.   A  blank  line  alone  is

               equivalent to `.+1p'; it is  useful  for  stepping

               through text.

     If an interrupt signal (ASCII DEL) is sent, ed will print  a

     `?' and return to its command level.

     If invoked with the command name  `-',  (see  init(VII))  ed

     will sign on with the message `Editing system' and print `*'

     as the command level prompt character.

     Ed has size limitations on the maximum number of lines  that

     can  be  edited,  on  the  maximum number of characters in a

     line, in a global's command list, in a remembered file name,

     and  in  the  size of the temporary file.  The current sizes

     are: 4000 lines per  file,  512  characters  per  line,  256

     characters  per  global command list, 64 characters per file

     name, and 64K characters in the temporary file (see BUGS).


     /tmp/etm?, temporary

     /etc/msh, to implement the `!' command.


     `?'  for  errors  in  commands;  `TMP'  for  temporary  file



     A Tutorial Introduction to  the  ED  Text  Editor  (internal



     The temporary file can grow to no more than 64K bytes.