LS(I)                        8/20/73                        LS(I)


     ls  -  list contents of directory


     ls [ -ltasdru ] name ...


     For each directory argument, ls lists the  contents  of  the

     directory;  for  each file argument, ls repeats its name and

     any other  information  requested.   The  output  is  sorted

     alphabetically  by  default.  When no argument is given, the

     current directory is listed.   When  several  arguments  are

     given,  the  arguments  are  first sorted appropriately, but

     file arguments appear before directories and their contents.

     There are several options:

     -l   list in long format,  giving  mode,  number  of  links,

         owner,  size in bytes, and time of last modification for

         each file.  (See below.)

     -t   sort by time modified  (latest  first)  instead  of  by

         name, as is normal

     -a   list all entries; usually those beginning with `.'  are


     -s   give size in blocks for each entry

     -d   if argument is a directory, list only its name, not its

         contents   (mostly   used  with  -l  to  get  status  on


     -r   reverse the order of sort to get reverse alphabetic  or

         oldest first as appropriate

     -u   use time of last access instead  of  last  modification

         for sorting (-t) or printing (-l)

     The mode printed under the -l option contains 10  characters

     which are interpreted as follows: the first character is

     d   if the entry is a directory;

     b   if the entry is a block-type special file;

     c   if the entry is a character-type special file;

     -   if the entry is a plain file.

     The next 9 characters are interpreted as three sets of three

     bits  each.   The first set refers to owner permissions; the

     next to permissions to others in the  same  user-group;  and

     the   last  to  all  others.   Within  each  set  the  three

     characters indicate  permission  respectively  to  read,  to

     write,  or  to  execute  the  file  as  a  program.   For  a

     directory,  `execute'  permission  is  interpreted  to  mean

     permission  to  search  the  directory for a specified file.

     The permissions are indicated as follows:

     r   if the file is readable

     w   if the file is writable

     x   if the file is executable

     -   if the indicated permission is not granted

     Finally, the group-execute permission character is given  as

     s  if  the  file  has  set-group-ID mode; likewise the user-

     execute permission character is given as s if the  file  has

     set-user-ID mode.


     /etc/passwd to get user ID's for ls -l.